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cultivation etc.

Paris currently mostly rates among Trilliaceae, but historically have existed considerable disagreement about the location, not just on the family name, but also on the genus name.
Paris is closely related to Trillium and it is clear that Paris and Trillium belong to the same family. Some botanists place the two together in a separate family (Trilliaceae), others believe they belong to Liliaceae, and they have been going back and forth several times.

Mediola, Scoliopus and Clintonia are cited as closely related, and their affiliations are controversial too.
in terms of the genus is some disagreement. There has over time been made up until several divisions, and the problem goes, briefly, if some of the species included to Paris, should instead be independent genera.
This view had Armen Takhtajan, when he in 1983 divided the species into three genera namely Paris, Daiswa and Kinugasa. The breakdown between Paris and Daiswa he special emphasis on the rhizome, as in Paris is thin and servile, while in Daiswa is thick.

1969 H. Hara considered Paris, Daiswa and Kinugassa to belong to one and the same genus, namely Paris, and Daiswa and Kinugasa as subgenera. Apparently he was the only one who had withdrawn chromosome numbers in the studies.
In 1984 and 1986, H. Li studies and assesses which Hara that there is one genus namely Paris. In addition, he divides the genus into two subgenera namely Paris and Daiswa. These two subgenera are further subdivided into sections.
The literature also refers to a genus called Trillidium (Kunth 1850). In this is placed species that have significant characteristics both from Paris and Trillium (Paris japonica, Trillium govanianum - now Trillidium govanianum while Paris japonica still goes under that name, or maybe Kinugasa japonica).
In 'Flora of Bhutan’ andFlora of China' includes all species in Paris while Daiswa, Kinugasa and Trillidium not are mentioned.
In 'Flora of China', from where parts of the species descriptions is downloaded, includes the genus Paris and Trillium furthermore in Lilliaceae, while Scoliopus, Mediola, Clintonia, Trillidium, Daiswa and Kinugasa are not mentioned

In the
1990s, was performed DNA analysis, so it is likely that there will eventually be some organization, but it is a slow process, and the old names often goes on, and creates confusion for a long time in the future.

The genus Paris is a perennial, herbaceous plant with a thickened rhizome. Stem is straight, single. Leaves from 4 to many, very rare 3, sitting in a wreath-stalked, lanceolate to ovate, with 3 main veins and coalescing small veins. Flower is multi-gendered, solitary, pedunculate. Tepals 3-8 in 2 whorls, the outer green, rarely white, oval to lance-shaped, the inner line-shaped or sometimes missing. There are 8-24 stamens or more, 2-8 x as many as the number of tepals, dust thread narrow, flat, dust-button fastening at the base, often with arched connection to tip. Ovary is round-oblate with 1 room with appurtenant receptacle, or divided into 4-10 room with axle formed receptacle. Style short, anthers laciniate. Fruit is a berry or capsule, closed or divided in rooms with several to many seeds.
There are about 24 species - 22 in China (12 endemic).
Rhizomes of many species are used medicinally in China.

Paris is widespread in many parts of Asia, centered in China. It is based in Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. In Europe there is a single species, namely P. quadrifolia, which also grows wild in Denmark.
Paris grows in forests, including evergreen forests and bamboo forests. It is found also in thickets and scrub on river banks and in the grass and rock canyons.
It is found at elevations from 0-4300 m.

Paris is relatively unknown in Danish gardens and nurseries. Perhaps it is because of the flower, which is not particularly flashy, but the genus deserves far more widespread, since it is a very interesting plant, especially the Asian species. But our homely Paris quadrifolia is also worth trying in the garden, and besides it is easy to grow under the right growing conditions.
About the Asian species is scanty information on the growing in culture. There will be more and more species on the market, perhaps not exactly in Danish nurseries, but in foreign as for example English nurseries more and more species are for sale. This is not least because of the AGS Expedition to China in the early 90s where there was brought home many new and interesting plants, including species of Paris. Moreover, the plant can be purchased in Chinese nurseries on the net.
As regards growing in culture is, as mentioned before, not much help to find in the literature. We must therefore be based on species' natural habitats, and try to emulate them.
As told in 'Paris of nature', the plants mainly is found in forests in mountain areas (evergreen and bamboo) so the growing soil must be a well drained humus soil mixed with needles or leaves.
About hardiness to frost and precipitation we must view in which height the plants grows in the mountains. The higher, the more sensitive is the plant for winter precipitation as, in its natural habitat, is covered with snow throughout the winter and thus do not get water at all. So maybe it will be necessary to cover the plants in the winter. It can be with a piece of glass, plate or the like.
In return the plants that grow under these conditions usually needs much water in spring and summer months.
Plants growing in high altitudes do not tolerate summer heat, so place the plant in a cool place in shade or partial shade.



Paris japonica




Paris luguanensis




Paris delavayi




Paris quadrifolia




Paris sp.